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Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary

Ingredient

Description

Rating

1,2-Hexanediol 1,2-hexanediol is a synthetic preservative and moisture-binding humectant. As a solvent, the clear liquid ingredient also helps to dissolve other substances. It's popularly used in personal and skincare products as an emollient, humectant, and moisture-boosting agent.
2-Hexanediol
Acer Saccharum (Sugar Maple) Extract Obtained from the bark and sap of the sugar maple, Acer saccharinum, Aceraceae, it contains malic and tartaric Acids, natural Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs), used to treat conditions such as rough skin, surface wrinkles and fine lines. Recognised for having exfoliating properties, AHAs leave the skin with a smooth and radiant appearance. Its functions (INCI)

Solvent : Dissolves other substances
Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Good
Acetyl Dipeptide-1 Cetylester Its functions (INCI)

Hair conditioning : Leaves hair easy to comb, soft, soft and shiny and / or confers volume, lightness and shine
Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Good
Acetyl Glucosamine Amino acid sugar and primary constituent of mucopolysaccharides and hyaluronic acid. Best
Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 Acetyl hexapeptide-8 is a synthetically-derived peptide that, like all peptides, has water-binding properties and skin-restoring ability. Good
Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Its functions (INCI)

Emulsion stabilising : Promotes the emulsification process and improves the stability and shelf life of the emulsion
Viscosity controlling : Increases or decreases the viscosity of cosmetics
Average
Adenosine Yeast-derived ingredient that functions as a good soothing and skin-restoring agent. Best
Agar AGAR is classified as :
BindingMaskingViscosity controlling
Good
Allantoin By-product of uric acid extracted from urea and considered an effective skin-soothing and skin-conditioning agent. Best
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract ts functions (INCI)

Emollient : Softens and softens the skin
Humectant : Maintains the water content of a cosmetic in its packaging and on the skin
Oral care : Provides cosmetic effects to the oral cavity (cleaning, deodorization and protection)
Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Good
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Good
Ammonium Acryloyldimethyllaurate/VP Copolymer According to the Personal Care Product Council’s Ingredient Infobase, ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer is a synthetic polymer and film-forming agent that also serves to thicken cosmetic formulas. It is used in low amounts in a variety of products due to its stabilizing abilities and esthetically pleasing feel. Good
Anemarrhena Asphodeloides Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Good
Anemarrhena Asphodeloides Root Extact Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Good
Argania Spinosa Kernel Oil Argania spinosa kernel oil is the latin name for the oil expressed from the kernels of the argan tree. Best
Arginine Amino acid that has antioxidant properties and can be helpful for soothing skin (Sources: Journal... Good
Ascorbic Acid Form of vitamin C that has antioxidant properties (Sources: Advances in Experimental Medicine and... Best
Aspalathus Linearis Extract Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Good
Aureobasidium Pullulans Ferment Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Good
Beeswax Substance made by bees to build the walls of their honeycomb. It is a thickening agent that has... Good
Behenate/Eicosadioate A mixture of esters of glycerin, along with behenic and eicosadioic acids, its works as a thickener and stabilizing agent in makeup and skincare products. The independent cosmetic ingredient review has found it is safe as used in cosmetics. Good
Benzyl Alcohol 0.1% Organic alcohol that occurs naturally in some fruits (apricots, cranberries) and teas. Its chief function in cosmetics is as a preservative, and it’s among the least sensitizing preservatives in use.

High amounts of benzyl alcohol can impart a noticeable floral-like scent to products, as it is part of the fragrance makeup of some essential oils such as jasmine.

As a volatile alcohol, it can pose a risk of sensitivity when used in high amounts, but is considered safe as used in cosmetics.
Good
Benzyl Benzoate 1.49% This substance is used in the following products: washing & cleaning products, polishes and waxes, air care products, cosmetics and personal care products, perfumes and fragrances and biocides (e.g. disinfectants, pest control products).
Other release to the environment of this substance is likely to occur from: indoor use as processing aid and outdoor use as processing aid.
Poor
Benzyl Salicylate 0.09% volatile fragrance chemical with a sweet, floral odor used to impart scent to cosmetic products and perfumes. Applied topically, benzyl salicylate can cause negative reactions, even in small amounts. Interestingly, you can find research showing that this fragrance ingredient did not cause observable skin sensitivity under conditions of a patch test on human skin; however, this research was conducted by the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, an independent research group that’s supported by suppliers of fragrances and products that contain fragrances. Poor
Beta-glucan Polysaccharide sugar derived from yeast or oats. It has some antioxidant properties and is a skin-soothing agent. Best
Betaine Betaine is an ingredient that works to balance skin’s hydration. Good
Betaine Salicylate An ingredient derived from sugar beets that is sometimes used as an alternative to... Good
Betula Alba Bud Extract Extract derived from the plant Betula alba (common name white birch). It can have antioxidant properties, but can also have astringent properties, which makes it a potential sensitizer for skin if it is one of the main ingredients in a product. Good
Butylene Glycol Commonly-used ingredient that has multiple functions in cosmetics, including.... Good
C1 77019
Mica is one of the most important naturally occurring mineral often used
in makeup foundations. It adds sparkle and shimmer to the product and
creates a glow effect. It is used in nail products, make-up and skin
care products.


MICA is classified as :
Opacifying
C1 77492 Cosmetic colorant
C1 77891 White dye (Titanium dioxide)
"Controversial / at risk" in the following categories :

Breath, Child toothpaste, Adult toothpaste, Cream for braces, Adult toothbrush,
Whiteness and stain removal, Solid toothpaste, Child toothbrush

"Satisfactory" in all other categories.

Penalized in spray products
Caffeoyl sh-Octapeptide-4
A high-tech, South-Korean peptide that's made synthetically to be identical to the protein called Leu-Enkephalin. It's an 8 amino acid neuropeptide that helps the body to regulate how it responds to harmful things (like heat, cold, cutting or irritation). 

In general, neuropeptides are believed to be important in wound-healing and the manufacturer claims that Sh-Octapeptide-4
has strong anti-aging and anti-wrinkle effect as well as rejuvenating
effect on aged hair tissue and follicles. 

Caffeoyl Tripeptide-1 All Functions: antioxidant, skin protecting
Description: caffeoyl tripeptide-1 is the product obtained by the reaction of caffeic acid and tripeptide-1
Calcium Aluminum Borosilicate Calcium aluminum borosilicate is a mineral-derived thickening agent often used in powders. Good
Calcium Chloride Chalk; used as an absorbent in cosmetics. Good
Calcium Lactate Sodium salt of lactic acid. Used primarily as a hydrating and buffering agent (to adjust a product’s pH value). Good
Camellia Japonica Seed Oil Camellia japonica flower extract is also known as Tsubaki, Japanese camellia, common camellia. Native to Korea, China, and Japan, research has shown this plant has impressive antioxidant, anti-pollution, and soothing abilities.

Specific to anti-pollution, testing on human skin samples revealed that topical application of the flower extract protects fibroblasts (cells in skin that make collagen) from oxidative damage that heavy metal airborne pollutants trigger. It also intercepts collagen-degrading enzymes before they lead to visible signs of aging such as wrinkles and orange peel-like skin texture. At the same time, this plant extract addresses loss of collagen that can visibly impact pore size.

Along with offering antioxidant and pollution-neutralizing benefits on its own, topical application of Camellia japonica flower also boosts the presence of several antioxidant enzymes that naturally occur in skin, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. This helps skin better defend itself against external aggressors that detract from a healthy appearance.

This plant is also a rich source of the oil-soluble antioxidant gallic acid that defends skin against visible signs of UVB damage while also interrupting excess melanin production.
Best
Camellia Senensis Leaf Extract Green tea is proven to be a great antioxidant, UV protectant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial
Because of these awesome properties green tea is a great choice for anti-aging and also for skin diseases including rosacea, acne and atopic dermatitis
Best
Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract Green tea is proven to be a great antioxidant, UV protectant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial
Because of these awesome properties green tea is a great choice for anti-aging and also for skin diseases including rosacea, acne and atopic dermatitis
Best
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride Derived from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s considered an excellent emollient and skin-replenishing ingredient. Best
Caprylyl Glycol Skin and hair conditioning agent that may be plant-derived or synthetic. Often used as part of a... Good
Carbomer Group of thickening agents used primarily to create gel-like formulations. Good
Carmine Natural red color that comes from the dried female cochineal beetle. It is sometimes used to color... Good
Carrageenan Seaweed gum used in cosmetics as a thickening agent with water-binding properties. Good
Cellulose Gum Any of various fibrous substances derived from plants. Cellulose gum is a natural ingredient.. Good
Centella Asiatica Extract Centella asiatica is an antioxidant-rich extract that may be listed on labels as asiatic acid, hydrocotyl, or gotu kola. It is a source of amino acids and has soothing properties. Concentrations of 5% show notable improvement in skin’s moisture content. Best
Centella Asiatica Leaf Water Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Ceratonia Siliqua (Carob) Gum All Functions: binding, emollient, emulsion stabilising, film forming, masking, viscosity controlling
Description: ceratonia siliqua gum is the ground seed of the ripe fruit of st. john's bread (carob), ceratonia siliqua l. (locust bean), leguminosae
Ceratonia Siliqua Gum All Functions: binding, emollient, emulsion stabilising, film forming, masking, viscosity controlling
Description: ceratonia siliqua gum is the ground seed of the ripe fruit of st. john's bread (carob), ceratonia siliqua l. (locust bean), leguminosae
Cetearyl Alcohol Fatty alcohol used as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener, and carrying agent for other... Good
Cetearyl Glucoside A blend of cetearyl alcohol and glucose that functions as an emulsifier. Good
Chamomilla Recutita (Marticaria) Flower Extract Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract is an extract from the flowers of the Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) plant. It is often used in skin care formulations for it's soothing and anti-inflammatory effects. It has also shown to offer wound healing and natural skin moisturizing benefits to the skin.
Charcoal Powder Primarily carbon substance formed by charring organic material in absence of oxygen... Good
Chlorphenesin Type of alcohol used as a preservative in cosmetics... Good
Chondrus Crispus Skin conditioning
Viscosity controlling
Citral 0.07% Citral is a component of lemongrass oil and the oils of verbena,
lemon myrtle, lemon and orange. In cosmetics and personal care products,
Citral is used in the formulation of many types of products including
aftershave lotions, bath products, moisturizers, perfumes and colognes,
skin care products and suntan products.
Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products? Citral functions as a fragrance ingredient and a flavoring agent.
Citronellol 0.47% Citronellol is an odor molecule that is one of the 26 allergens
regulated by Europe. It is present in essential oils of geranium,
lemongrass or rose.
Good
Citrus A urantifolia (Lime) Fruit Extract Apart from culinary uses, the lime fruit entirely is very much useful in cosmetics. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, which revives our body, including skin from inside out. It saves the skin from free radicals, which are prevalent in the atmosphere, making aging faster. When it is applied to the skin. When juice is applied onthe skin, it tones the skin, cleanses it and makes it refreshed. Lime pulp is believed to fight against dandruff and cleanses hair. The lime seed oil has valuable fatty acids as mentioned earlier, and which can moisturize skin, imparting lemony fragrance. Lime peel is a good exfoliator, removes dead skin cell, and reveals newer skin cells, making the skin appear like new. It is used in bath products, skin care products, and hair care products.
Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Fruit Extract Fruit Extract maybe used in cosmetics and personal care products. The types of products in which these ingredients may be found include bath products, soaps and detergents, skin care products, cleansing products, fragrance products and hair care products.
Citrus Limon (Lemon) Fruit Extact The types of products in which these ingredients may be found include bath products, soaps and detergents, skin care products, cleansing products, eye makeup, fragrance products and hair care products.
Commiphora Myrrha Resin Extract A yellow-brown viscous liquid with a balsamic smell. It's a natural antiseptic, astringent and disinfectant. As an antibacterial, it might help acne prone skin and greasy hair. As a strong fragrant gum, it is also a potential skin irritant.
Cordyceps Sinensis Extract CORDYCEPS SINENSIS EXTRACT is classified as :

Antioxidant
Emollient
Humectant
Skin conditioning
Skin protecting
Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Bud Extract All Functions: Skin Conditioning
Crosspolymer Its functions (INCI)

Emulsion stabilising : Promotes the emulsification process and improves the stability and shelf life of the emulsion
Film forming : Produces a continuous film on skin, hair or nails
Viscosity controlling : Increases or decreases the viscosity of cosmetics
Poor
Cryptomeria Japonica Leaf Extract All Functions: Humectant
Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Fruit Extract Cucumber is a nice, non-irritating plant extract that’s known for it’s soothing and emollient properties. It’s not something new to put it on our face: even Cleopatra used it to “preserve her skin”.

It’s commonly believed that cucumber is the answer to puffy eyes, but there is no research confirming this. What research does confirm is that it contains amino acids and organic acids that’s helpful for the skin’s acid mantle. There is also an enzyme (called shikimate dehydrigenase) in the pulp that’s shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.
Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba (Guar) Gum Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba (Guar) Gum (also called Guar Gum) is a resinous material made from the guar bean. Guar Gum is a type of polysaccharide called galactomannan made from legume plants that consists of a polymannose backbone to which galactose groups are bound. Derivatives of Guar Gum that also may be used in cosmetics and personal care products include Hydroxypropyl Guar, Guar Hydroxpropyltrimonium Chloride and Hydroxypropyl Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. Among these guar ingredients, Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride is most frequently used in cosmetic products. It may be used in bath products, hair conditioners, hair dyes, other hair care products and skin care products. Guar Gum and the other guar derivatives may also be used in bath products, hair care products, shaving preparations and skin care products.
Cyclopentasiloxane Lightweight silicone with a silky, slippery feel that functions as a skin/hair conditioning agent. Good
D-Limonene 1% Limonene It is used in cosmetics for its citrus scent. It is present in many plants, fruits and vegetables. It is also found in the skin of citrus fruits, pickles, celery or in several essential oils.
Ddisodium EDTA One reason we recommend to NOT use products containing Disodium EDTA, is because it is a ‘penetration enhancer’. Although it doesn’t absorb particularly well into the skin, it disrupts the surface of skin cells so that other chemicals can get in more easily – ie other chemicals in your product, and chemicals in your shower water, etc. Poor
Diglycerin The big brother of glycerin. It's also a natural moisturizing factor that reduces water evaporation from the upper layer of the skin and helps to keep water in the skin so that it stays nicely hydrated.

Compared to glycerin, it has a larger molecular structure (kind of a double glycerin). Thanks to this, it penetrates slower into the skin but gives longer lasting moisture and less sticky, better skin-feel.
Dimethicone A type of silicone, dimethicone is one of the most frequently used emollient ingredients in moisturizers due to its gentleness... Good
Dimethicone Crosspolymer Silicone derivative used as a stabilizing or suspending agent or as a thickener. Good
Dipeptide Diaminobutyroyl Benzylamide Diacetate It is a cell-communicating ingredient meaning that it signal cells to operate better. An example would be retinol where it can reduce wrinkles.
Dipeptide Diaminobutyroyl Benzylamide Diacetate is used in anti aging creams. It targets wrinkles such as laugh lines and crow’s feet. It smooths the skin reducing the appearance of wrinkles. An in-vivo study was carried out with real participants; the results showed 21% smoother skin, 15-20% reduction in wrinkles.
Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate The salt form of one of the main anti-inflammatory ingredients in the licorice plant, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate. It’s a yellowish powder with a nice sweet smell.

It’s used mainly for its soothing and anti-inflammatory properties, but according to manufacturer info, it’s also sebum regulating so it's a perfect ingredient for problem skin products.
Best
Dipropylene A synthetic slip agent and texture enhancer.
Dipropylene Glycol A synthetic slip agent and texture enhancer. Good
Disodium EDTA Short for disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Used as a chelating agent... Good
Eclipta Prostrata Extract An annual plant common to Korea, Eclipta prostrata has potent antioxidant and skin-calming properties. Best
Eriobotrya Japonica Leaf Extract Skin conditioning
Skin protecting
Tonic
Ethyl Hexanediol A synthetic, viscous alcohol that functions as a solvent and can also be... Average
Ethylhexlglycerin Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Deodorant : Reduces or masks unpleasant body odors
Ethylhexyl Stearate Ethylhexyl Stearate may also be called Octyl Stearate. In cosmetics and personal care products, stearate esters are used most frequently in the formulation of eye makeup, skin makeup, lipstick and skin care products. Good
Ethylhexylglycerin A synthetic skin-conditioning agent used as a preservative or as a carrier or suspending agent for... Good
Fragrance One or a blend of volatile and/or fragrant plant oils (or synthetically derived oils) that impart... Poor
Freesia Refracta Extract Skin conditioning
Ganoderma Lucidum (Mushroom) Extract Ganoderma lucidum is a species of mushroom also known as Reishi mushroom that, when applied to skin, can visibly reduce some types of discoloration. Best
Geraniol 0.09% A volatile fragrance ingredient extracted from geranium, geraniol is capable of causing sensitivity when applied to skin. However, the risk of such reaction has to do with depth of penetration into skin, and geraniol doesn’t penetrate skin easily. As such, although it’s not a great ingredient to see on a label if you have sensitive skin, it isn’t among the most troublesome fragrance ingredients when used in low concentrations. Despite the lesser concern, research has shown that, like many fragrant oil components, geraniol can oxidize in the presence of air, causing damage when appied to skin's surface.
Glycerin Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable. Best
Glyceryl Acrylate/Acrylic Acid Copolymer Glyceryl acrylate/acrylic acid copolymer is the fancy word for a common polymer (big molecule from repeated subunits), namely polyacrylic acid (aka carbomer when it comes to cosmetics) with glycerin attached to it in some places.

The main thing of this polymer is that it forms a hydrogel (trade named Lubrajel) that can sit on top of the skin and provide moisturizing, water-soluble ingredients such as glycerin to the skin. Think of it as a very thin, wet sponge that a cosmetic manufacturer can fill with good ingredients for your skin. It also works as a thickening agent (remember, it is a carbomer type of molecule), and can provide the skin with a nice slippery feel. It can also draw water to the skin (thank you, pendant glycerol groups!), providing skin hydration.
Glyceryl Behenate/Eicosadioate A mixture of esters of glycerin, along with behenic and eicosadioic acids, its works as a thickener and stabilizing agent in makeup and skincare products. Good
Glyceryl Caprylate A 100% plant derived, natural (Ecocert approved) multi-functional ingredient that has emollient and moisturizing properties, can work as a co-emulsifier (meaning that next to other emulsifiers it can help water and oil to mix) and even more importantly has a strong antimicrobial activity.

Thanks to this last thing, it allows a lower percentage of traditional preservative or it might even be able to completely replace them.
Glyceryl Stearate Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. Good
Glycine Soja (Soybean) Sterols Sterol derived from the Glycine soja (soy) plant. A sterol is a solid complex alcohol derived from animals and plants. Despite the alcohol origin, sterols are not drying on skin; rather, they serve to lubricate and have an emollient texture. Best
Glycol Propylene glycol, also known as 1,2-propanediol, is a synthetic (i.e., man-made) alcohol that attracts/absorbs water. It is a viscous, colorless liquid, which is nearly odorless but possesses a faintly sweet taste. Propylene glycol is one of the most widely used ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, including facial cleansers, moisturizers, bath soaps, shampoos and conditioners, deodorants, shaving preparations, and fragrances. In addition to its use as an ingredient in cosmetic and personal care products, it is used in numerous food items such as beer, packaged baked goods, frozen dairy products, margarine, coffee, nuts, and soda. It is also used as an inactive ingredient (e.g., solvent) in many drugs. FDA has approved its use at concentrations as high as 98% in drugs applied to the skin and 92% in drugs taken orally.
Glycolic Acid A type of alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that, like other ingredients in the category, can act as a water-binding agent and, when properly formulated, as an exfoliant... Best
Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract Today, many people utilize licorice root to treat ailments like heartburn, acid reflux, hot flashes, coughs, and bacterial and viral infections. It’s regularly available as a capsule or liquid supplement (2Trusted Source).

Additionally, licorice tea is said to soothe sore throats, while topical gels are claimed to treat skin conditions like acne or eczema (4Trusted Source).

What’s more, licorice is used to flavor some foods and beverages (5Trusted Source).

Surprisingly, many licorice candies are flavored not with licorice root but with anise oil — an essential oil from the anise plant (Pimpinella anisum) that has a similar taste.
Gold (C1 77480) Cosmetic colorant
Gylcerin Also called glycerol or glycerine, glycerin is present in all natural lipids (fats), whether animal or vegetable.
Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Leaf Extract cosmetic astringent, skin-conditioning agent - miscellaneous, and skin conditioning
Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Water drug astringent - skin protectant drugs and skin-conditioning agent - miscellaneous
Honey Extract We all know honey as the sweet, gooey stuff that is lovely to sweeten a good cup of tea and we have good news about putting honey all over our skin. It is just as lovely on the skin as it is in the tea.

The great review article about honey in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology writes that it is arguably the oldest skincare ingredient and evidence from around 4500 BC mentions honey in some eye cream recipes. Chemically speaking, it is a bee-derived, supersaturated sugar solution. About 95% of honey dry weight is sugar and the other 5% consists of a great number of other minor components including proteins, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, and minerals.
Best
Hydrogenated Lecthin skin-conditioning agent - miscellaneous, surfactant - emulsifying agent, suspending agent- nonsurfactant, emulsifying, and skin conditioning
Hydrogenated Polyisobutene Synthetic polymer used as a skin-conditioning agent and emollient. Good
Hydrolyzed Collagen Hydrolyzed Collagen is a mixture of small peptides obtained from through the hydrolysis of collagen. In cosmetics and personal care products, Hydrolyzed Collagen is used primarily in hair preparations and skin care products, but can also be found in makeup, shampoos and bath products
Hydroxydecyl Ubiquinone (500ppm) a synthetic analog of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer Its functions (INCI)

Emulsion stabilising : Promotes the emulsification process and improves the stability and shelf life of the emulsion
Viscosity controlling : Increases or decreases the viscosity of cosmetics
Hydroxyethylcellulose Plant-derived thickening agent typically used as a binding agent or emulsifier. Also used (most... Good
Impatiens ABalsamina Flower Extract Its functions (INCI)

Astringent : Helps tighten the pores of the skin
Masking : Reduces or inhibits the odor or basic taste of the product
Inonotus Obliquus (Mushroom) Extract Skin Conditioning Agent
Isoeugenol 0.13% Isoeugenol is a pale yellow liquid with a spicy, carnation-like odor. In cosmetics and personal care products, Isoeugenol is used in the formulation of perfumes, shaving products, and skin care products. Isoeugenol functions as a fragrance ingredient and as a flavoring agent .
Isohexadecane Used as a detergent cleansing agent, emulsifier, and thickening agent in cosmetics. Good
Juglans Regia (Walnut) Leaf Extract UGLANS REGIA LEAF EXTRACT is classified as :

Abrasive
Astringent
Bulking
Cleansing
Masking
Skin conditioning
Soothing
Lactic Acid Alpha hydroxy acid extracted from milk, although most forms used in cosmetics are synthetic. It... Best
Lavandula Angustifolia (Lavender) Flower Extract LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA FLOWER EXTRACT is classified as :

Cleansing
Deodorant
Masking
Refreshing
Tonic
Lecithin Phospholipid found in egg yolks and may be plant or animal derived. It is widely used in... Best
Lepidium Meyeni Root Extract Skin conditioning
Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil Limnanthes alba (meadowfoam) seed oil is a non-fragrant, edible plant oil originally developed as an agricultural crop in the 1950s. Best
Linalool 4.84% inalool functions as a fragrance ingredient
Lysmeral 0.06% Lysmeral® Extra Lilial is a concentrated aromatic and flavor ingredient which may be used in flavor and fragrance compounds according to legal and IFRA or FEMA GRAS/FDA guidelines.
Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil The golden yellow oil coming from the Macadamia nut, a native Australian nut. Similar to other plant oils, it's loaded with emollient and nourishing fatty acids. It's a high oleic acid oil (50-67% oleic acid and only 0-5% linoleic acid) that makes it very emollient and ideal for dry skin types (and less ideal for acne-prone skin).

Its unique property is that it contains high amounts of a rare fatty acid called palmitoleic acid (12-25%) that give Macadamia oil a "cushiony" feel. It's also easily absorbed and makes the skin soft and supple.
Melia Azadirachta Leaf Extract Categories: Plant Extracts, Antioxidants

Latin term for the extract from the leaf of the neem plant.
Best
Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract In cosmetics and personal care products, these ingredients are used in the formulation of dentrifices, mouthwashes and breath fresheners, skin care products, bath products, and makeup.
Why is it used in cosmetics and personal care products?

Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf, and Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Water impart a distinct odor or flavor to products. In cosmetic and personal care products, these ingredients may also function as skin conditioning agents
Methyl Gluceth-20 Liquid that functions as a water-binding and skin-conditioning agent. Good
Methylparaben Parabens are a group of controversial preservatives that include butylparaben, isobutylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, and ethylparaben. All of these were at one time the most widely used group of preservatives used in cosmetics. Parabens were so popular because of their gentle, non-sensitizing, and highly effective profile in comparison to other preservatives but also because they were derived naturally from plants, a rare phenomenon for a preservative. Parabens are found in plants in the form of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), a chemical that breaks down to become parabens for a plants own protection.

Over the past 10 years parabens have become criticized and condemned for use in cosmetics due to their alleged relation to health concerns affecting women and men. The research about parabens is conflicting and polarizing. Some research indicates they are safe as used in cosmetics and are preferred over other preservatives to keep a formula stable. These studies also showed parabens did not have any effect when compared to natural hormones in the body.

However, other research has concluded they are indeed problematic: Some studies determined a 100% concentration of parabens caused skin samples (meaning not intact skin on a person) to break down. However, these studies don’t apply to the tiny amount (1% or less) of parabens typically used in cosmetics. In low amounts, parabens were not shown to harm skin; in fact, they offer a benefit due to their ability to thwart the growth of mold, fungi, and harmful pathogens.

Other studies casting parabens in a negative light were based on force-feeding them to rats, a practice that is not only cruel but unrelated to what happens when parabens are applied to skin. There are studies indicating absorption of parabens through skin associated with application of skincare products, but those studies did not take into consideration that parabens are still used as food-grade preservatives or found naturally in plants and that could have been the source not the cosmetics. We also looked at studies showing other questionable effects but those were done in vitro meaning in a petri dish or, again, animal studies in species whose biologic makeup does not closely relate to people.

We appreciate the concern about parabens and understand if people choose to avoid them. At Paula’s Choice Skincare we use parabens in a very limited number of products, but that decision is based on other reasons than the scare tactics rampant on the internet. For transparency, we list all ingredients on individual product pages and packaging and our Client Services team is always happy to help.
Good
Mineral Oil Clear, odorless oil derived from petroleum that is widely used in cosmetics because it rarely... Good
Monarda Didyma Leaf Extract Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Moringa Oleifera Seed Oil Moringa oil is a non-fragrant plant oil that contains several antioxidants and vitamins. Best
Nelumbo Nucifera Leaf Extract Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Niacinamide Also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, niacinamide is a very effective skin-restoring ingredient... Best
Nicotinoyl Tripeptide-1 NICOTINOYL TRIPEPTIDE-1 is classified as :

Antioxidant
Chelating
Skin protecting

COSING REF No: 85950
Chem/IUPAC Name: Nicotinoyl Tripeptide-1 is the product obtained by the reaction of Niacin with Tripeptide-1
Oenothera Biennis (Evening Primrose) Flower Extract Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Olea Europaea (Olive) Bud Extract Antioxidant
Emollient
Oligopeptide-1 Sh-Oligopeptide-1 is the famous molecule, which is also called Epidermal Growth Factor or EGF. Chemically speaking, Growth Factors are largish peptides or smallish proteins, or to put it in another way, medium-length amino acid sequences (EGF consists of 53 amino acids). Biologically speaking, Growth Factors are cellular signal molecules that can stimulate cell growth, proliferation, healing and/or differentiation.

There are lots of Growth Factors and EGF is just one of them. The topic of "Growth Factors and skincare" is a big, confusing and controversial one and we will try our best to summarize the story for you, including the pros and the cons.
Pachyrrhizus Erosus Root Extract Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 Trade name Matrixyl, a fatty acid mixed with amino acids. The only research showing this has any... Best
Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 A synthetic peptide that is believed to play a role in the appearance of skin firmness... Best
Parfum Exactly what it sounds: nice smelling stuff put into cosmetic products so that the end product also smells nice. Fragrance in the US and parfum in the EU is a generic term on the ingredient list that is made up of 30 to 50 chemicals on average (but it can have as much as 200 components!).

If you are someone who likes to know what you put on your face then fragrance is not your best friend - there's no way to know what’s really in it.
Peg-40 Castor Oil PEG 40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil is the Polyethylene Glycol derivatives of Hydrogenated Castor Oil, and it functions as a surfactant, a solubilizer, an emulsifier, an emollient, a cleansing agent, and a fragrance ingredient when added to cosmetics or personal care product formulations.
PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil Emollient ingredient that is a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with castor oil. Good
PEG-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil The chief function of this ingredient is cleansing agent. Good
PEG/PPG-17/6 Copolymer PEG stands for polyethylene glycol; PPG stands for polypropylene glycol. Good
Pentylene Glycol A synthetic skin-replenishing agent and solvent. Good
Perilla Frutescens Leaf Extract Masking
Skin conditioning
Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil Persea gratisima is the Latin name for avocado, and the oil from this fruit is an excellent source of skin-replenishing fatty acids Best
Phellinus Linteus Extract The meshima mushroom also has intense antioxidant properties. In fact, studies have shown that meshima mushrooms, also known as Phellinus linteus, were comparable to vitamin C for fighting free radicals. This makes them gangbusters for aging and sensitive skin, as both of these are affected by free radicals.
Phenoxyethannol
Phenoxyethanol Common cosmetic preservative that is considered one of the less sensitizing ones to use in... Good
Pinus Palustris Leaf Extract Its functions (INCI)

Tonic : Produces a feeling of well-being on skin and hair
Poloxamer 184 A synthetic polymer that functions as a cleansing agent. Good
Polyacrylate-13 A helper ingredient that functions as a film-forming polymer (big molecule from repeated subunits).

It usually comes to the formula as part of a thickener-emulsifier trio paired with Polyisobutene and Polysorbate 20. The three togeather have excellent thickening properties with remarkable emulsifying-stabilising abilities. They also have a nice silicone feel with glide-on spreading.
Polycylcerin-3 Three glycerin molecules attached together. It is a humectant and moisturizer ingredient just like glycerin, but the larger molecular structure penetrates slower into the skin and gives milder, longer lasting moisture.
Polyglutamic Acid Skin conditioning
Polyglyceryl-4 Caprate A water-loving emollient that is used as a solubilizer in water-based, toner-like formulas. Solubilizers are handy helper ingredients to dissolve small amounts of oil-loving materials (such as essential oils or fragrances) into watery liquids. Polyglyceryl-4 Caprate also has some emollient properties, making the skin feel nice and smooth.
Polygonum Cuspidatum Root Extract Polygonum cuspidatum root extract is a plant whose root is a good source of the potent polyphenolic antioxidant trans-resveratrol. Best
Polysobutene In cosmetics and personal care products, Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene are used in the formulation of lipsticks, they can also be found in eye and facial makeup, skin care products and suntan products.
Polysorbate 20 It's a common little helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix together. Also, it can help to increase the solubility of some other ingredients in the formula. Good
Portulaca Oleracea Extract Vaccinium Angustifolium (Blueberry) Fruit Extract Portulaca Oleracea is a nice succulent with bright yellow flowers and edible nutritious vegetables. It's a famous plant in Korean traditional medicine to treat infection and irritated skin.

Modern research confirms that it's loaded with skin-goodies: it's the richest green plant source of omega-3 fatty acids (α-linolenic acid), contains NMFs (polysaccharides and amino acids), vitamins (β-carotene), minerals, and antioxidants (yellow betaxanthins and reddish betacyanins). Thanks to all its beneficial components, Purslane Extract has several magic properties: it's a great anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent and also has wound healing abilities.
Potassium Chloride In cosmetics and personal care products, it may be used in the formulation of bath products, cleansing products, eye makeup, skin care products, personal cleanliness products and hair care products.
Potassium Hydroxide Also known as lye, a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to modulate the... Average
Powder oxic and harmful chemicals are rare in face powders today.[50] Modern powders contain ingredients that can conceal blemishes and smoothen out the skin due to their absorbency.[51] The most common ingredients used to make face powder include the following.
Ingredient Component Other names
Silica[52] Silica oxide[53] Quartz, Silicic oxide, crystalline silica, pure silica, silicea, silica sand
Starch[1] Polymeric carbohydrate[54] Amylum
Talc[50] Silicate mineral[55] French chalk[50]
Dimethicone[52] Polymer, silicone[56] PDMS, dimethylpolysiloxane, E900
Zirconium Silicate[1] Zircon[57] Zircon, zirconium orthosilicate
Zinc Oxide[51] Zincite[58] Zinc white, calamine, philosopher's wool, Chinese white, flowers of zinc
Titanium Dioxide[51] Rutile and anatase[59] Titanium oxide, titania, rutile, anatase, brookite
Kaolin[52] Silicate, oxygen, alumina octahedra[60] Kaolinite
Magnesium Carbohydrate[52] Magnesium and carbonate salt[61] Magnesite
Propanediol A glycol that can enhance the absorption of ingredients… Good
Propanedol A glycol that can enhance the absorption of ingredients (such as salicylic acid) into the skin. Propanediol can be derived naturally (from corn) or synthetically. It has hydrating properties that may leave a smooth, dewy finish. Propanediol is a well-tolerated ingredient, not likely to cause sensitivity. Good
Propylene Glycol Along with other glycols and glycerol, propylene glycol is a humectant (hydrating) and delivery ingredient... Good
Propylparaben FOUND IN: Shampoos, conditioners, lotions, facial and shower cleansers and scrubs

WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Ethylparaben, butylparaben, methylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben, other ingredients ending in –paraben

WHAT ARE PARABENS? Parabens are actually several distinct chemicals with a similar molecular structure. Several are common in a wide array cosmetic and personal care products: ethylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben, methylparaben and propylparaben.MORE...

HEALTH CONCERNS: Endocrine disruption, cancer, developmental and reproductive toxicity MORE...

Endocrine disruption: Parabens are potential endocrine disruptors due to their ability to mimic estrogen.[9] In cell studies, parabens have been found to weakly bind to estrogen receptors.[10] Studies demonstrate that at sufficient concentrations, parabens can increase cell proliferation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, which are often used as a sensitive measure of estrogenic activity.[11] In MCF-7 cells, isopropyl- and isobutyl parabens have the most potent of proliferative potency, but they are around 170,000 times lower than estradiol.[12],[13]

The so-called “long chain” parabens[14] (butylparaben and its alternative form, isobutylparaben and isopropylparaben and propylparaben) have the strongest estrogenic activity among those widely used in personal care products. A study of prenatal isobutylparaben exposure in rats demonstrated increased uterus weight and uterine sensitivity to estrogen in the offspring.[15] Ethylparaben showed lower levels of estrogenic activity and methylparaben shows almost no estrogen activity.[16] In addition to direct estrogenic effects, parabens can block androgens (for example, testosterone)[17] and inhibit enzymes that metabolize estrogen.[18]

The Endocrine Disruption Exchange includes methylparaben,[19] ethylparaben,[20] propylparaben,[21] butylparaben,[22] isopropylparaben,[23] isobutylparaben[24] as endocrine disruptors due the multiple endocrine effects described above.

Skin Cancer: Applying personal care product containing parabens—especially methylparaben—can lead to UV-induced damage of skin cells and disruption of cell proliferation (cell growth rate).[25],[26] Daily application, in particular, can lead to increased concentrations of methylparaben because it is not completely metabolized.[27] Parabens combined with other estrogenic chemicals may potentially influence the development of malignant melanoma, one form of skin cancer, through their estrogenic and genotoxic activites.[28]

Developmental and Reproductive toxicity: Propyl and butyl parabens appear to reduce sperm production[29],[30] and lead to reduced testosterone levels,[31] while methyl- and ethyl-parabens do not affect sperm production. These effects appear to be dose-dependent.[32] In addition, one study found that maternal exposure to butylparaben during gestation and lactation alters the development of the reproductive organs and sperm production.[33] In general, propyl- and butylparabens, specifically, appear disrupt male reproductive system and affect the reproductive organs.[34],[35] This is consistent with their estrogenic activity noted above.

Laboratory evidence suggests that maternal exposure to isobutylparaben during gestation can lead to anxiety and behavioral changes in offspring.[36],[37]

VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: Pregnant women and young children

REGULATIONS: Some forms of parabens are banned in Denmark (propyl and butyl paraben, their isoforms and their salts) in cosmetics products for children up to 3 years.[2]

HOW TO AVOID: Look for products labeled “paraben-free” and read ingredient lists on labels to avoid products with parabens. Many natural and organic cosmetics manufacturers have found effective alternatives to parabens to prevent microbial growth in personal care products. Some companies have created preservative-free products that have shorter shelf lives than conventional products (six months to a year).
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Pueraria Lobata Root Extract What-it-does: moisturizer/humectant
Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil In cosmetics and personal care products, Castor Oil and related ingredients are used in the formulation of many different cosmetic and personal care products including lipstick, skin-care products, and bath soaps
Rosa Centifolia Flower Water Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Skin protecting : Helps to avoid the harmful effects of external factors on the skin
Rosa Multiflora Fruit Extact Its functions (INCI)

Masking : Reduces or inhibits the odor or basic taste of the product
Tonic : Produces a feeling of well-being on skin and hair
Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract The extract coming from the lovely herb, rosemary. It contains lots of chemicals, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, and diterpenes. Its main active is rosmarinic acid, a potent antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. It has also anti-bacterial, astringent and toning properties.

The leaves contain a small amount of essential oil (1-2%) with fragrant components, so if you are allergic to fragrance, it might be better to avoid it.
Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract Origanum Bulgare Extract
Rubus Fruicosus (Blackberry) Fruit Extract Its functions (INCI)

Astringent : Helps tighten the pores of the skin
Masking : Reduces or inhibits the odor or basic taste of the product
Tonic : Produces a feeling of well-being on skin and hair
Rubus Idaeus (Raspberry) Fruit Extract Red raspberry gets its red color from the presence of antioxidant compounds known as anthocyanins. Best
Saccharomyces Ferment This ingredient is a water-like substance made from fermenting and filtering yeast. It is naturally high in minerals, amino acids, beta glucan, and vitamins. The fermentation process breaks down molecules, resulting in a very bio-available ingredient that can easily penetrate the dermis to soothe, hydrate, brighten, and repair. You will also see copper peptides mixed into this process, this helps the peptides break down and release any toxins before being added into your skin care products.
Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract The following functions have been reported for the ingredients derived from Salvia officinalis.

Fragrance ingredient: Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Flower/Leaf/Stem Extract, Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Leaf Water, Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Oil
Oral care agent: Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract
Skin conditioning agent - miscellaneous: Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Flower/Leaf/Stem Extract, Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Leaf Extract, Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Leaf Water, Salvia Officinalis (Sage) Root Extract
Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria baicalensis root extract comes from a flowering plant native to China, where it’s been used for years as one of the many herbal preparations within the field of Chinese medicine. In China, the extract is known as Huang-Qin or golden herb, because the root is a golden yellow color.

It’s primarily used in cosmetics for its promising ability to interrupt the creation and transfer of excess pigment; however, these scientific studies were done in vitro on skin cells, not intact skin on people struggling with dark spots, so what seems exciting in a lab setting may not hold as much promise for topical use. The other issue is the current lack of agreement on how much of this root extract is needed to visibly fade skin discolorations; some say 0.1% is enough, others recommend at least a 1% concentration is necessary, and some blends with this ingredient encourage amounts of 3-10% if the goal is visible improvement of skin color.

The root is more exciting because it contains baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A, all of which are flavones, a type of antioxidant that lend color to various plants and are known to be soothing. Scutellaria baicalensis root can help skin better withstand environmental aggressors that can worsen the look of many common skin concerns, so it certainly has value.

Testing on mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig skin revealed that a standardized extract of this ingredient is not irritating or sensitizing, even when the skin was compromised. The conclusion was that Scutellaria baicalensis is a viable option for sensitive skin struggling with signs of uneven skin tone or just in need of soothing.
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Scutellaria Balcalensis Leaf Extract
sh-Decapeptide-9 Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
SH-Oligopeptide-1 Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
sh-Pentapeptide-19 Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil Its functions (INCI)

Emollient : Softens and softens the skin
Hair conditioning : Leaves hair easy to comb, soft, soft and shiny and / or confers volume, lightness and shine
Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
Snail Secretion Filtrate This “snail secretion filtrate” is the slime the snail produces while moving, after its been collected and purified and used in your skincare formulation. Snail secretion filtrate is naturally rich in are glycosaminoglycans. Big weird word I know, but glycosaminoglycans are polysaccharides (a type of carbohydrate) that exists as part of your skin’s “natural moisture factor.” Natural moisture factors help your skin retain its moisture, which contribute to whether your skin is going to feel tight and firm or dehydrated and wrinkled.
Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate Sodium ascorbyl phosphate is a stable, water-soluble form of vitamin C that functions as an antioxidant. Best
Sodium Dilauramidoglutamide Lysine A plant-derived ingredient that helps replenish skin and hair... Good
Sodium Hyaluronate The salt form of skin-replenishing ingredient hyaluronic acid. Best
Sodium Phosphate In cosmetics and personal care products, the Sodium Phosphate ingredients are used in the formulation of bath products, colognes, dentifrices, mouthwashes, hair conditioners, hair dyes and colors, permanent waves, shampoos, makeup and skin care products.
Sodium Polyacrylate A synthetic polymer with multiple functions, including film-forming agent, stabilizer, absorbent,... Good
Sorbitan Isostearate A handy helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix nicely together, aka emulsifier. It is especially recommended for protective, baby care and general purpose emollient creams.

It also helps to disperse insoluble particles (think color pigments or zinc/titanium dioxide sunscreen) nice and even in cosmetic formulas.
Sorbitan Laurate Sorbitan laurate is an ester that works as a cleansing agent and emulsifier. Good
Sorbitan Sesquioleate mainly oil loving molecule that helps water and oil to mix nicely, aka emulsifier. In itself, it can create water-in-oil emulsions (when water droplets are dispersed in oil), but it is used mostly next to water-loving emulsifiers to create nice and smooth oil-in-water creams. It can also function as a wetting and dispersing agent helping insoluble particles such as color pigments or inorganic sunscreens (zinc/titanium dioxide) to disperse nice and even in liquids.

Chemically speaking, this molecule is "halfway" between Sorbitan Oleate and Sorbitan Trioleate, meaning that it is also an attachment of sorbitan (a dehydrated sorbitol (sugar) molecule) with the unsaturated fatty acid Oleic Acid, but in a ratio of 2:3 hence the "Sesqui" part in the molecule's name.
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Sucrose Monosaccharide that has hydrating properties for skin. Good
Sucrose Stearate Polyglyceryl-10 A sugar ester (sucrose + stearic acid) that works as a natural emulsifier (helps water and oil to mix). It's popular in oily gel cleansers as it improves the high-temperature stability of the formula.
Synthetic Fluorphlogopite Phlogopite is a natural mineral of the mica family that consists of layered magnesium aluminum silicate sheets weakly bound together by potassium ions. Synthetic Fluorphlogopite is similar, except that in the manufacturing process (which requires high temperatures), some of the hydroxyl groups in the mineral are replaced with fluorine atoms. In addition, while natural phlogopite may be yellow, green or red in color, Synthetic Fluorphlogopite is white to grey in color.
Thymus Vulgaris (Thyme) Flower/Leaf Extract Masking
Skin conditioning
Tonic
Tin Oxide in(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations up to 0.4% in rinse-off products and up to 1.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that tin(IV) oxide is a water-insoluble inorganic metal compound and should not be percutaneously absorbed; therefore, systemic exposure is not likely.
Titanium Dioxide Inert earth mineral used as a thickening, whitening, lubricating, and sunscreen ingredient in... Best
Tocopherol Tocopherol, a fat-soluble vitamin, is found in vegetable fats and oils, dairy products, meat, eggs, cereals, nuts, and leafy green and yellow vegetables. It is usually present in these foods as mixtures of different forms: alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-Tocopherol. The alpha form has the same biological activity as vitamin E.Tocopherols can be produced from vegetable oils or can be synthesized. Tocopherol Acetate, made by the esterification of Tocopherol with acetic acid, is frequently the source of vitamin E in dietary supplements. Best
Tocopheryl Acetate Alpha-tocopheryl acetate (ATA) is a specific form of vitamin E that's often found in skin care products and dietary supplements. It's also known as tocopheryl acetate, tocopherol acetate, or vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E is known for its antioxidant properties. Best
Trehalose Plant sugar that has hydrating properties for skin. Good
Tricholoma Matsutake Extract Provides powerful lightening effect. Provides shine to the skin. Has antioxidant and moisturizing properties. Decreases elastase activity.
Triethanolamine Used in cosmetics as a pH balancer. Like all amines, it has the potential for creating... Good
Tripeptide-10 Citrulline Tripeptide-10 Citrulline is a new cosmetic active, designed as a substitute of decorin, that specifically targets collagen fibre organization to regulate collagen fibrillogenesis.
Tripropylene Glycol Tripropylene glycol functions as a humectant, antioxidant, and emulsion stabilizer.
Tromethamine Used in cosmetics as a pH balancer and emulsion stabilizer. Like all amines, it has the potential for creating nitrosamines. There’s controversy as to whether or not this poses a real problem for skin, given the low concentrations used in cosmetics and the theory that nitrosamines cannot penetrate skin.

Triethanaolime is typically used in amounts less than 1% in cosmetics; concentrations of 2.5% have been found to be non-irritating when applied to skin. It is also added to foods.
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Ulmus Davidiana Root Extract A nice plant extract that's used as a traditional oriental medicine in China and Korea. A 2006 study examined the cosmetic properties of the polysaccharide extract and found a couple of promising things:

The main components of the extract are water-binding sugars, namely rhamnose, galactose, and glucose. After this, it's not very surprising that the extract itself is also a great skin moisturizer almost as good as superstar NMF, hyaluronic acid. But that's not all: the researchers also found that Ulmus extract has promising anti-inflammatory and photoprotective properties. Seems like a goodie plant extract.
Vaccinium Macrocarpon (Cranberry) Fruit Extract Its functions (INCI)

Skin protecting : Helps to avoid the harmful effects of external factors on the skin
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Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Fruit Extract Its functions (INCI)

Skin conditioning : Keeps the skin in good condition
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Water The most widely used cosmetic ingredient; water is almost always listed first on an ingredient... Good
Xanthan Gum Used as a thickening agent. Good
Xylitol Xylitol is a sugar alcohol that may be plant-derived or synthetic (Paula’s Choice uses the former). Best
Yucca Shidigera Root Extract Plant extract native to Mexico that can have skin-soothing benefits; however, its saponin content (believed to be the active part of the plant) can be sensitizing. Like most plant extracts, yucca also functions as an antioxidant. Average

 

 

#Reference: https://www.paulaschoice.com/ingredient-dictionary

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